Research Analyst Position

Interested in exploring the frontiers of Collective Action and applying Web 3 Infrastructure? Ledgerback is actively hiring.


Ledgerback Commons Research Cooperative (“Ledgerback”) is seeking a research analyst candidate to join one of our six research programs, with the opportunity to become a member-owner of Ledgerback.

Ledgerback is a distributed research, innovation and education center for collective action and commoning in the contexts of emerging technologies, data sovereignty, systems innovation, mechanism design, and the digital economy.

To better understand and advise collective action and commoning in the above contexts, we combine social and technical research with free and open source technologies (hardware and software).

Ledgerback conducts research in 6 research programmes:

  1. Solidarity Project

  2. Open Finance

  3. Platform Cooperativism

  4. Cryptoeconomics

  5. Emerging Technologies

  6. Knowledge Commons

The Solidarity Project programme is focused on distributed governance, organizational technology, organization design, digital democracy, and other related topics.

The Open Finance programme is focused on alternative finance, decentralized finance, open finance, digital money, community currencies, social money, and other related topics.

The Platform Cooperativism programme is focused on cooperativism in the digital economy, data sovereignty, identity sovereignty, commons-based peer production, and other related topics.

The Cryptoeconomics programme is focused on cryptoeconomic protocols, mechanism design, game theory, data science, network analysis, systems innovation, and other related topics.

The Emerging Technologies programme is focused on blockchain use cases, proof-of-concepts, cryptography, applied technologies, and other related topics.

The Knowledge Commons programme is focused on open science, open data, open access, knowledge infrastructure, peer production, scholarly commons, and other related topics.

Our main outputs are:

  • Original Research

  • Commentary

  • Guides

  • Courses

  • Toolkits

  • Reviews

  • Articles

  • Presentations

  • Infographics

Additionally, we also offer research services to the general public, as long as it falls under our focus and scope, and the research is generalizable to other contexts such that we can offer general templates to the public.

For more information about Ledgerback, please refer to our docs at

Duties and Responsibilities

As a Research Analyst, the candidate will be required to:

  • Undergo and complete a Trial Membership period

  • Collect, store and analyze data

  • Join a Research Programme

  • Collaborate with other members and/or collaborators

  • Communicate findings to the general public

  • Write articles, blog posts, research papers,  presentations, etc.

  • Assist members in offering research services to the general public

  • Basic programming in Python, SQL, or R

Background Knowledge

The candidate is expected to be aware of at least one of the following topics:

  • Blockchain technology

  • Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)

  • Open Science

  • Distributed Systems

  • Applied Technologies

  • Decentralized Governance

  • Cryptocurrencies

  • Distributed Data Storage

  • Common Pool Resources

  • Peer Production

  • Peer-to-Peer Networks

  • Web 3.0 Infrastructure

  • Platform Cooperativism

Skills Desired

The following skills will be helpful to a Candidate in this role:

  • Strong writing ability

  • Strong analytical ability

  • Ability to employ an interdiscplinary approach

  • Willingness to go out of your comfort zone

  • Basic Research Methods

  • Familiarity with Document Preparation Software

  • Basic Programming in Python or R

  • Copywriting

  • Basic Data Analysis

Time and workload management

Candidate should expect that their schedule will vary based on the demands of the Research Programme they have joined and if required, the need to assist on a client-based research project.

Candidate should expect to commit approximately 3 – 7 hours peer week to their assigned tasks and general assistance at Ledgerback.


Candidate’s trial membership will be evaluated by their assigned supervisor.

Candidate’s research will be evaluated by the research lead in their Research Programme.

Candidate’s overall performance will be evaluated by fellow members of the Cooperative.


Candidate is required to apply for membership to  Ledgerback, which may be accomplished by signing and dating the Membership Agreement, and sending such Agreement to


Candidate may receive compensation for this role based on:

  • how much funding Ledgerback can raise from external sources,

  • how much funding Candidate can raise for research, and

  • how much Ledgerback earns from offering research services

How to apply

If you would like to apply for this position, please send your resume and any relevant work to

Contact Information

Please refer all questions, comments, or concerns to, and a Member should respond to your email within five (5) business days.

Originally posted on Democratic Jobs:

Planning the Las Vegas Mesh Network

How we are developing a Community-owned Wireless Mesh Network in Las Vegas, Nevada to support the growth of decentralized internet infrastructure.


The Las Vegas Mesh Network is a community wireless network project to develop a community-owned internet service provider (ISP) via decentralized internet infrastructure (i.e., members of the network own, deploy, and manage the infrastructure, and provide internet access to each other without a centralized intermediary) in the City of Las Vegas.

The Las Vegas Mesh Network is being spearheaded by Charles Adjovu, Director and Researcher at Ledgerback Commons Research Cooperative (“Ledgerback”), a research, innovation and education center for collective action and commoning.


Charles Adjovu, Director & Researcher at Ledgerback


To operate a community-owned ISP in a way that facilitates community-members ability to: 

  1. own and manage their internet infrastructure  

  2. access the Internet at affordable rates

  3. retain privacy over their Internet browsing history

  4. share Internet access with other community-members.


We envision the Las Vegas Mesh Network becoming a prominent, community-owned ISP that offers internet access at affordable rates and will serve as a model for mitigating inequities in internet access and infrastructure in Las Vegas and greater Nevada. 

How are we going to build the wireless network?

To build the wireless network, we need to undertake four processes:

  • Community Design

  • Outreach Survey

  • Site Mapping

  • Skills Inventory [3].

Community Design

For Community Design, we want to design the network to ensure the technologies we will need for the network will fit in accordance with pre-existing relationships in the sites [3]. In other words, we want to make sure the wireless network maps onto the existing social networks in the planned sites [3].

For example, a community center is an area where having multiple access points makes sense because it is a space where many people come together to engage in group activities [3].

Site Mapping

In Site Mapping, we are mapping the physical location of the wireless network and how we will establish our physical equipment [3].

First, we want to determine the topography of the area [3]. 

Second, we want to determine the built space in the area (buildings, trees, towers, etc.) [3].

Third, we want to determine the features of buildings in the area (floors, line of sight, roof type, benefits, challenges, etc.) [3].

Fourth, we want to determine how to install equipment (e.g., mounting routers to roofs, finding power supplies) on buildings we selected in the previous step [3].

Fifth, we want to test our equipment and see how it performs under real-world conditions.

Outreach Survey

To better understand the needs of potential members and the potential sites for the wireless network, we have created an outreach survey to:

  • Understand people’s needs

  • Find out existing resources that will support the network

  • Make contact with people located in potential sites

  • Raise awareness of the project

  • See who’s willing to contribute 

  • Gain new perspectives on the project [3].

Skills, Roles and Tasks Inventory

To start, grow and maintain the wireless network, we will need to identify the necessary skills needed to develop, grow and maintain the wireless network [3].

Additionally, we will need to identify the roles participants can fill to utilize their skills in furtherance of the development of the mesh network [3].

Lastly, we will also need to determine the tasks needed to grow the wireless network [3].

What is a Mesh Network?

Mesh Network Basics

A mesh network is a network topology (virtual layout of devices on a network) of interconnected devices where any device on the network can act as a router and forward traffic in the network [1].

In this network, there is not one central node that routes traffic, rather traffic can be routed by any node on the network, thus providing for peer-to-peer communications [1].  

Mesh networks are a stark contrast from a star network, where one node on the network is responsible for routing traffic on the network (i.e., central access point) [1]. This node acts as the central access point for all traffic [1].

Mesh networks are also dynamic networks, such that they are resilient to changes in topology (e.g., nodes leaving the network), and can adjust routing paths as new devices join the network or devices leave the network [1]. Additionally, a mesh network strengthen (i.e., avoiding network issues such as congestion, interference) and expand (i.e., new routing paths) as more devices join the network [1].

Benefits of Mesh Networks

  • Removal of a central point of failure

  • Can work with minimal infrastructure;

  • “network works with minimal infrastructure and can therefore be deployed faster at a lower cost than traditional infrastructure.”

  • Can connect multiple devices in a wide area because devices can re-transmit signals;

  • Networks are more resilient to changes in topology;

  • They are not reliant on solely one node to route traffic on the network [1].

Why a Mesh Network instead of a Traditional ISP?

There are many reasons why to choose a mesh network over a traditional ISP.

Here are a couple of reasons why:

  • Speed/Quality: Nodes in the network will be optimized to use the lowest-cost route for sending traffic on the network, thus increasing the quality of traffic. Additionally, the speed of the mesh network will increase as more nodes are added to network.

  • Pricing: We can provide multiple pricing schemes, including a pay-as-you-go and a tiered (free, premium, etc.) model. Additionally, as the number of nodes increases, the service will improve while the price decreases. Lastly, nodes in the network will be optimized to use the lowest-cost route for sending traffic on the network, thus lowering your cost on a per-route basis.

  • Privacy: We do not plan on spying on your browsing activity. All traffic on the network will be secured via encryption between nodes, and the network itself will act as a Virtual Private Network through an exit node

  • Reliability: Even though the system cannot avoid all problems, it is optimized to be resilient such that if a node or nodes are down, your router will look for an alternative route to take. As more people join, the more routes that are available to take [1, 2].

Potential Network Sites

Four areas have been scouted as potential sites for the Las Vegas Mesh Network:

  1. Downtown Las Vegas

  2. North of Downtown Las Vegas

  3. North Las Vegas

  4. Arts District

Event Planning

We plan to host an event about the Las Vegas Mesh Network that will cover:

  • The requirements for a wireless network,

  • The basics of wireless networks,

  • The potential sites for the wireless network,

  • The potential benefits of a wireless network, and

  • How residents can participate in establishing the wireless network.

Outreach Survey

We have created an outreach survey for people to become better informed of the Las Vegas Mesh Network and so that anyone can provide their input  for the development of the wireless network and determine how they can contribute to the wireless network. 

Survey link:

Current Status

We are currently mapping potential sites for the Las Vegas Mesh Network and getting in contact with potential community members about joining the Las Vegas Mesh Network.


Twitter: @lasmesh






Organizations, Research Strategy, and Courses Updates


Organizations Update

For 2020 - 2021, we are working on two expected expansions of the network:

  1. Maker Cooperative

  2. Open Network Initiative

We discussed the Maker Cooperative expansion in some Ledgerback updates last year.

Maker Cooperative is a multi-stakeholder incubator and consultancy for social, collective and Web 3.0 ventures.

After some deliberation and discussion, we expect Maker Cooperative to be operational by the end of February 2020.

The Open Network Initiative is a new broadband project that we are working on here in Las Vegas, Nevada. This initiative may spin out into its own cooperative if enough progress is made on the initiative.

Additionally, we plan to work on an organizational design document, the Meta-organization design document, that will cover how to develop inter-linkages between digital organizations and digital institutions, and a Token Cooperative document, that will cover developing a wholly or partially operational Web3.0 cooperative.

Research Strategy Update

For 2020 -2021, we are working on three (3) strategic documents to guide our research efforts:

  1. Research Directions

  2. Polling and Surveying Directions

  3. Roadmap

The Research Directions and Polling and Surveying Directions are strategic documents that outline the overarching areas and questions we intend to tackle for 2020 - 2021.

The Roadmap is our strategic document covering the milestones we intend to achieve, and the times we intend to achieve them by.

We plan to finalize and release the above documents by the end of March 2020.

Courses Update

The release of our three courses:

  1. Intro to Platform Cooperativism

  2. Intro to Commons-based Peer Production

  3. Intro to Decentralized and Open Thinking

will be delayed until mid-March 2020. Unfortunately, the past two months have been too busy with time spent on other areas of the organization.

If you like our work, please follow us on:







January Research Roundup

Interesting Research we found in January covering Data Monetization, Decentralized Finance (DeFi), Cryptoeconomic Systems, Platform Cooperativism, and Transportation

Hi everyone! Hope you are having a great start to the new year.

Here is a short and sweet roundup on interesting articles and projects we recently found covering Data Monetization, Decentralized Finance (DeFi), Cryptoeconomic Systems, Platform Cooperativism, and Transportation.


2019 DeFi Industry Annual Research Report

Author(s): Alec Fu, Cecilia Jiang, Harper Li, Johnson Xu

Publisher: TokenInsight

Year: 2019

Related Organizations:

  • Alec Fu, Cecilia Jiang, Harper Li, Johnson Xu:

    Analysts, TokenInsight

Area(s): Decentralized Finance, Lending, Collateral, Blockchain, Financial Services, Alternative Financing, Decentralized Exchanges, Trading, Derivatives, Securities, Interest, Governance, Decentralized Autonomous Organizations, Financial Organizations, Liquidity, Constant Product Markets, Cryptocurrrency, Ethereum, Decentralized Applications, DeFi Primitives, Money Legos


Full paper:


$850 Million

Total value locked in DeFi (at least).

~ 50%

MakerDao Dominance, accounted for about 50% in the ETH DeFi ecosystem.


The total value locked (USD) in ETH DeFi more than doubled in 2019, from $ 290 Million to $680 Million, despite recent declines in the cryptocurrency price.


DAI stablecoin saw the strongest market demand with only $3 Million locked in the DeFi protocol in the beginning of the year and grew exponentially to $30 Million at the peak.

✅$154 Million

Debt outstanding in USD more than doubled from $68 Million to $154 Million at the peak.


ETH supply locked in DeFi accounted for roughly 2.5% of the current circulating supply.

✅~ 7%

EOSs in circulation have been locked in the EOS DeFi ecosystem.

✅Doubled growth

Lightning network saw a double growth in BTC value, from ~504 BTC to 1,100 BTC locked in the lightning network at the peak.

✅$2 Million/ $600 Million

The growth of DEX trading activities has been relatively slow but steady in the past year, the daily average trading volume across 2019 is ~ $2 Million compared to ~$600 million on a top tier centralised exchange.

✅DeFi lending will continue its pace in 2020 but will start to focus more on the integration of value added components, such as Oracle, DAOs, etc.

✅With the integration of liquidity aggregator and market making bot, DEXs will grow in a much faster pace in 2020, however centralised exchanges will still dominate the market.

✅Stablecoins will continue to grow and connecting the cryptocurrency industry and traditional fnance to bring a much wider adoption.

✅The DeFi industry will face some regulatory challenges, but proper DAO framework can help the DeFi projects to implement compliant governance mode

✅The industry should see an adoption of a pseudo-benchmark rate as the DeFi industry reference rate.

✅DeFi Financial instruments such as options, swaps will be created and gradually integrates with the existing DeFi infrastructure to help manage risks.

Introducing the Continuous Securities Offering Handbook

Author(s): Thibauld Favre and Joris Delanoue

Publisher: Fairmint

Year: 2020

Related Organizations:

  • Thibauld Favre:

    CEO & Co-founder, Fairmint

  • Joris Delanoue:

    COO & Co-founder, Fairmint

Area(s): Securities, Equity, Financing, Startups, Blockchain, Continuous Organizations, Token Bonding Curves, Cryptoeconomics, Securities Offerings, Continuous Funding, Funding.


Full paper:


A Continuous Securities Offering (CSO) is a new investment vehicle, updated for the digital era. The CSO enables companies with growth potential to raise funding by selling a claim on a reserve, funded primarily by a fixed portion of revenues. The CSO offers several advantages over traditional financing: Fairmint offers a turnkey solution that streamlines companies’ ability to launch and manage their own CSO. This document explains the market shortcomings that the CSO solves and provides an overview of how a CSO works, including the lifecycle and parameters for trading.

The Omnibus Model for Custody

Author(s): Ria Bhutoria

Publisher: Fidelity Digital Assets

Year: 2020

Related Organizations:

Area(s): Custody, Digital Custody, Cryptocurrencies, Insituttional Investors, Cryptomarkets, Trusts, Custody Models, Securities, Digital Assets, Public Key Infrastructure, Proof of Custody, Liquidity, Derivatives, Key Management


Data Monetization

How to Monetize & Tokenize Data

Author(s): Bruce Pon

Publisher: Ocean Protocol

Year: 2019

Related Organizations:

  • Bruce Pon:

    Ocean Protocol

Area(s): Data Monetization, Tokenization, Data Ownership, Token Economic Systems, Cryptoeconomics, Token Engineering, Data, Data Economy, Intellectual Property, Data Stewardship, Blockchain, Marketplace, Web3.0, Trust, Financialize, Frameworks


Platform Cooperativism

4 scenarios on how a platform cooperative breakthrough might happen in the 2020s

Author(s): Leo Sammallahti

Publisher: Coop Exchange

Year: 2020

Related Organizations:

  • Leo Sammallahti:

    Coop Exchange

Area(s): Platform Cooperativism, Data Cooperatives, Ownership, Anti-trust, Cooperativism, Digital Cooperatives, Web3.0, Blockchain, Partnerships, Local-to-Global, Mutualization, Cooperative Alternatives, Cooperative Conversions



Economic Games as Estimators

Michael Zargham back at it again with the cryptoeconomic systems papers!

Author(s): Michael Zargham, Krzysztof Paruch, and Jamsheed Shorish

Publisher: Research Institute for Cryptoeconomics at WU Vienna

Year: 2020

Related Organizations:

  • Michael Zargham, PhD:

    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria

    BlockScience, Inc, California, USA

  • Krzysztof Paruch, and Jamsheed Shorish:

    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria

Area(s): Token Engineering, Complex Systems, Cryptoeconomic Systems, Decentralized Systems, Open Systems, Interdisciplinary Research, Economic Systems Engineering, Purpose-driven Tokens, Socioeconomic Networks, Peer-to-Peer, Collective Action, Blockchain, Systems Theory, Cryptoeconomic Protocols, Game Theory, Mechanism Design, Optimization, Signals, Rule Technology, Cooperative Games, Uncooperative Games, Complexity, Distributed Ledgers, Estimation, Dynamic Games


Full Paper:


Discrete event games are discrete time dynamical systems whose state transitions are discrete events caused by actions taken by agents within the game. The agents’ objectives and associated decision rules need not be known to the game designer in order to impose structure on a game’s reachable states. Mechanism design for discrete event games is accomplished by declaring desirable invariant properties and restricting the state transition functions to conserve these properties at every point in time for all admissible actions and for all agents, using techniques familiar from state-feedback control theory. Building upon these connections to control theory, a framework is developed to equip these games with estimation properties of signals which are private to the agents playing the game. Token bonding curves are presented as discrete event games and numerical experiments are used to investigate their signal processing properties with a focus on input-output response dynamics.


Evaluating the Potential of Cooperative Ridesourcing: A Case Study of Arcade City in Austin, Texas

Team: Sara Stephens and Adam Stocker

Year: 2020

Initiative: Project on the Energy and Environmental Implications of the Digital Economy

Related Organizations:

  • Sara Stephens:

    Housing Program Director, Sustainable Economies Law Center, California, USA

  • Adam Stocker:

    Consultant, Sustainable Economies Law Center, California, USA

    Research & Project Management, Innovative Mobility group of UC Berkeley’s Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC)

  • Arcade City

Areas: Ridesourcing, Transportation, Innovation, Cooperatives, Platform Cooperatives, Cooperativism, Blockchain, Protocol Cooperatives, Mobility Applications, Sharing Economy, Platform Economy, Transportation Cooperatives, Innovative Transportation, Case-studies

Project description:

Should operators share their data with authorities?


Year: 2019

Publisher: Shared-Micromobility

Related Organizations:

  • Alexandre Gauquelin:

    Founder & Consultant, Shared-Micromobility

Areas: Smart Mobility, Micro-mobility, Shared Mobility, Data Governance, Local Governments, Transportation, Innovation, Data Stewardship, Data Monetization, Open Standards, Data Sharing, Compliance


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Databike Pilot Project

Have you ever wondered if you could sell the data you generate on an e-bike? Well, you'll find out in our Data Governance & Token Economic System Proof-of-Concept

Databike is a micro-mobility data governance and token economic system project that we are developing in Las Vegas, Nevada.

The project is spear-headed by Charles Adjovu, Director & Researcher at Ledgerback Commons Research Cooperative (LCRC).

We started working on the project in Summer 2019 and we feel that we have made enough progress on the research to warrant an individual post.

Research Motivation & Questions

Our research motivations for starting the Databike Pilot Project were:

  • the rapid growth of shared micro-mobility services in the United States during 2019 [2],

  • the lack of discussion on data stewardship and governance around user-generated micro-mobility data and how this applies generally to the platform & data economy,

  • the lack of blockchain and micro-mobility discussion and literature as a means of transportation innovation, and

  • general curiosity around how token economic systems could be applied to the micro-mobility industry.

Our current list of research questions include:

  1. Can we use blockchain as part of a micro-mobility solution?

  2. Can we create a token economic system to incentivize cyclists to generate micro-mobility data by riding e-bikes?

  3. Can we develop a new business model for micro-mobility data stewardship?

  4. Can we develop a new type of cooperative that combines a transportation network with data stewardship?

  5. If we can share micro-mobility data, then will a public-commons partnership (PCP) become a viable route of sustaining the Databike business model?

  6. Can we develop a marketplace for micro-mobility data exchange?

  7. Can we build a micro-mobility pilot (creating an e-bike with data storage and sharing capabilities) that can serve as a basis for implementing our token economic system?

  8. Can we generate large amounts of micro-mobility data with our token economic system such that machine learning and artificial intelligence methods would be usable for data analysis and prediction?


Our methods for the Databike Pilot Project is two-fold.

First, we are developing a prototype e-bike by converting a mountain bicycle into an e-bike by adding the basic e-bike parts (motor, battery, brakes, etc.) to the mountain bicycle.

Second, we are developing a token economic system (and business model if need be) that is intended to incentivize the following behaviors:

  • the generation of micro-mobility data

  • the purchase of e-bikes

  • the healthy usage of e-bikes

  • the greater usage of e-bikes

Specifically, we will be working on a token generation algorithm for e-bike usage, and a business model to incentivize e-bike purchases and conversions.

Third, we will be developing a data exchange marketplace so that users and buyers have a place to sell and buy micro-mobility data (and avoiding many of the ethical concerns with obtaining this data).

Issues Addressed

Databike intends to address three primary issues in the micro-mobility ( sharing mobility, etc.) industry and the platform & data economy in general:

  1. Users of Micro-mobility platforms do not have any control over how mobility providers use, share, analyze, and store their data [1];

  2. Users of Micro-mobility platforms cannot store their micro-mobility data on their own private devices; and

  3. Users of Micro-mobility platforms cannot individually share their mobility data with third parties and receive remuneration for data exchange.

Databike intends to resolve the three (3) above issues by:

  1. Allowing users to store their mobility data on-premise and export to their own private device

  2. Allowing users to sell their mobility data to interested third parties in a safe and secure marketplace

  3. Allowing users to decide who, when, where, and why there data gets shared.

Desired Outcomes

The current desired outcomes of this pilot project are as follows:

  • Add to the minimal literature on blockchain and micro-mobility as a means of innovating transportation;

  • Add to the minimal literature on token economic systems;

  • Develop a data governance model, token economic system model and business model (“Models”) for securing and exchanging user-generated micro-mobility data

  • Raise the alarms on data governance in our token and data economies, and why we need to have an ongoing discussion on data governance before users lose any chance of having their voices heard; and

  • Offer the Models to existing bikesharing systems (with special benefits for cooperatives) and local governments.

Eventually, with all of the data produced, it should be possible for third parties to develop artificial intelligence and machine learning tools and models to understand mobility data regarding electric-assisted bicycles.

Current Stage

Currently, we are developing a prototype e-bike that can store micro-mobility data on-premise and share such data with a data exchange marketplace.

After the prototype is developed, we will move onto developing the token economic system and data exchange marketplace.

Future Steps

After the prototype is developed, we will move onto developing the token economic system and data exchange marketplace.

Get Involved

Send a message to about your interest in joining our Databike team and how you would like to contribute to the pilot project.

You should hear back from us within 3 -4 business days.

Current team members

  • Charles Adjovu

  • Gavin Hansen

  • Manny Williams


[1] Booz Allen Hamilton, Mobility on Demand: Operational Concept Report 136, US Department of Transportation (USDOT): Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office,

[2] Article 4. The Electric Scooter Uprising, Amalgam Staff,

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